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[Transform] SEG会议报告:地面微地震实时监测技术在水平井同步压裂中的应用

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发表于 2018-8-8 13:57:59 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式

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品质源于技术 服务源于态度
这是阿什卡微信公众号的第544篇原创文章
首发于2018年8月7日
作者:姚同云 唐建


Application of Micro-seismicSurface Monitoring Technology in Multi-Well Pad Simultaneous HydraulicFracturing
Tongyun Yao1,Jian Tang2,and Li Qin2
1.ESSCA, Chaoyang Dist.Beijing, China 100101
2.BGP Southwest Company of CNPC,Chengdu,China 610213

Summary

Hydraulic fracturing has been akeytechnology to recover hydrocarbons from unconventional and lowpermeability reservoirs. Surface Micro-seismic Monitoring hasbeen expanding rapidly over the recent years, withitsadvantages compared to the traditionaldownholemonitoring, which restricted by monitoring well location and distance.

Atpresent, the mainstream events location algorithms ofsurface microseismic monitoring need high density groundmonitoring stations to guarantee themonitoring quality. The acquisition geometry is widespread deployment of theground, usually more than thousand channels,such as thestar of MSI company, which could stack outnoise by stackadditionalchannels in the process or be arranged as specialshape to reduce noise.

Multi-wellpad technology had been widely used in Fuling and Weiyuan shale gas fields inChina, it can improve drilling efficiency and save cost. Meanwhile, the technologyis facing challenges of simultaneous fracturing and surface monitoring. Wepropose a method of real-time surface micro-seismic based upon the concept of collapsing approach. This method overcomes the delay ofreal-time data processing caused by giant dataset in 3D ray tracingcomputation, and is applicable to monitor horizontal wells with TVD over 3000meters. Therefore, it can play an superior guiding role in multi-well padreal-time surface micro-seismic monitoring.

Introduction

Micro-seismic monitoring, whichhas been common practice to evaluate and optimize hydraulic fracturing processtechnologically, and economically.Surface monitoringshows advantages[4-7] compared to subsurface micro-seismic monitoring, including:
①the flexibilities ofhaving receptor array layout in subsurface monitoring, especially when it ishardly to determine a suitable monitoring well within the target area forexploration purposes;
②the fact thatsurface monitoring takes multi-channel receptors to enhance SNR(Signal-to-Noise Ratio) while suppressing the noises, and the fact that surfacemonitoring, essentially, senses the seismic events with the algorithm ofstacking the scanned seismic sources, which is able to detect the events withSNR less than 1, while the subsurface monitoring typically demands the eventshaving a SNR of more than 3;
③ the research valuesfurther added by a wider coverage over the field in surface monitoring, beyondits role of providing real-time decisions during hydraulic fracturing processas well as estimating the Stimulated Reservoir Volume. The study may explainthe mechanism of seismic sources and failure of rocks.

Micro-seismic surface Monitoring Principle

Scanninginterferometry algorithm is utilized to stack signals from multiple receptorswith respect to time, in order to identify and locate the seismic events, whichis, in a sense, to delivering detection quality from having sufficient quantityof data acquired. When computing the travel duration of the events from insidethe grid to the array, calibration in time domain is necessary along thetraveling. Afterward, waveform and envelope stacking process can position theseismic events based upon the maximum energy criterion.

图1.png
Figure1. Schematic of micro-seismic surface monitoring

公式1.jpg
where,
公式2.jpg

Thisapproach is favored in the situations where low SNR data are obtained. Sensorsare buried shallow on surface of the interested area, which has beendiscretized into a grid system. Time lapse is calculated from each grid to thesurface receptor honoring the formation velocity model. Then imaging withineach grid can be achieved with the signals received from the seismic array.

The forward research on the geometryof surface microseismic for simultaneous fracturing of multiple horizontal wells

Parametersused in the forward modeling of the multi-horizontal well monitoring involvethe velocity model, noise profile, depth and spatial coordinates of certaingiven seismic sources, which all originate from the real shale gas project,with surface monitoring on fracturing horizontal wells being performed. The goalof the project is to conduct a pilot test of fracturing multi-horizontal wells

图2 a.png
a. Designpattern of the surface array geometry

simultaneouslyin shale formation, produce characterization of the fracture features andstress field in the layer, aiming atoptimizing the fracturing design and multi-well placement. In this case, 4 horizontalwells drilled with MD of 4430 – 4925 m, TVD ranging from 2500.7 to 2800.2 m are studied. Those wellshave an inter-well distance of around 350 m. The 4 horizontal wells are intotal discretized into 111 sections with 333 perforation clusters. In thiscase, a 2000m by 1800m rectangular area is under observation and test. Thefracturing operation was designed to take a 10-arm star array with 810 sensorsburied at a depth of 0.5 – 1 m. The monitoring radius of the receptor can reachto 4720m, with the coverage of 510 – 580 times.

When proceed with theforward modeling using the ray tracing method, a 40 Hz Ricker wavelet excitesthe P wave in the field where sampling frequency of 1 ms is maintained inapplication of scan stacking approach to locate those seismic events. Prior to positioningthem, the data with different levels of noises has been de-noised, which istypically done through band-pass filtering, random noise suppression andabnormal amplitude suppression, therefore maximizes SNR without jeopardizingthe useful information.

图2 b.png
b. surfacearray geometry used in real case

图2 c.png
c. Forward modeling of the surface receivingarrangements

Figure 2. Design of Multi-well Surface receiving arrangements and itsForward Modeling


Collapsing Grid SearchRoutine

Simultaneousfracturing of multiple horizontal wells connects the natural fractures and thecracks for stress relief within the reservoir, leading into efficientconstruction of the fracture network with higher fracture density and surfacearea. The resulted bigger Stimulated Reservoir Volume, determines a widersurface area and a heavier load on data acquisition. Here we take thecollapsing approach based micro-seismic positioning method, aiming at speedingup the positioning process without compromise its accuracy. The schematic isshown in Figure 3: grid searching is performed for batches, yellow grids aresearched through first, followed by another round of searching over the smallgrids around the red dot.
图3 1.png
Figure 3. The Principle of Collapsing Grid Approach

We use acollapsing approach in order to produce a more efficient grid search algorithm.In this case an initial course grid is first searched for the minimum misfitposition. The algorithm then assumes that this minima is spatially close to theglobal minima and automatically generates a smaller and finer grid (a collapsedgrid) around this position. The minimum misfit within this grid is then found,and another collapsed grid defined. The algorithm continues until auser-specified location resolution is obtained. The algorithm assumes that thedeepest minima it finds within a particular grid is not a local minimapositioned at some distance from the required global minima. For a poor arraygeometry (where local minima might be expected) a user can mitigateagainst Being caught by local minima by defining the extent to which the gridis collapsed (the Collapsing Buffer) and thus the size of volume in which thenew search is performed. Larger collapsed grids result in more collapsing loopsand thus longer computations. The user defines the following configurationparameters on the Location Algorithm Properties dialogue:

(1) TheNorthing, Easting and Depth limits of the grid-search volume;
(2) TheCell Dimension (Dc1 ) – the starting celldimension for the initial coarse grid;
(3) TheDesired Resolution – the final resolution the user wishes to obtain;
(4) TheCollapsing Buffer (Bc) – thehalf-width, in uncollapsed cells, of the new collapsed grid.

Acollapsed grid has a size (volume limits) and cell dimension defined by theprevious grid. The dimension of a collapsed cell is given by Equation, where Dci is the Cell Dimension of the previous grid andR is the Collapsing Ratio:

图3 1.png
图3 2.png
Figure 4. Parameterization with Collapsing Grid Approach



Case Study of Real-Time Surface Monitoring during Simultaneous Fracturingof Multiple Wells

Hereamong the four horizontal wells, we take section 17 in well 6 and section 19 inwell 7 for the example to demonstrate real-time monitoring of fracturingprocess. Figure 5 – 7 displays the geometry, extension and orientation offractures in separate stages, respectively. Real-time advice was obtainedduring the evolution of fracturing process in order to optimize the treatmentparameters, and a result, enhance stimulation of the prospect.

As shown in Figure 5, whenthe simultaneous fracturing just started, micro-seismic events in well 7 havegone further, with clearer signal on fracture extension. In comparison, theevents in well 6 and its demonstration of fracture orientation were relativelyweak.
图5.png
Figure5 The result ofmicro-seismic monitoring for fracturing

Then, asshown in Figure 6, while the fracture growth seen in well 7 was better, whichmet the requirement of pre-treatment design. Well 6 fracture has shown betterextension after adjustment of parameters such as increasing proppant volume etc.
图6.png
Figure6 The result ofmicro-seismic monitoring for fracturing

Subsequently, in Figure 7, bothtarget sections in the 2 horizontal wells have been stimulated well, wherefracturing extensions, locations and geometric features can be clearlydescribed.

图7.png
Figure7 The result of micro-seismic monitoringfor fracturing


Conclusions

Throughthe case study of analyzing the real-time surface micro-seismic monitoring dataacquired from simultaneous multi-well fracturing, along with its forward model,we conclude the followings.

1.Surface micro-seismic using star array geometry works well on monitoring anextended geographic area with multiple wells to be fractured at the same time.The frequencies of coverage areas being monitored are consistent in this arraysystem. It also delivers a good clarity of signals after pre-processing, andhigh accuracy in teRMS of locating the seismic events.

2. Thecollapsing surface micro-seismic approach performs very precisely on locatingthe events. The results are able to characterize the hydraulic fractures.Therefore, this approach satisfies the requirement for real-time monitoring insimultaneous multi-well fracturing operation.

3. Theweak micro-seismic events in simultaneous fracturing can be very well imagedwith the scanning process. The dynamics of fracturing can be depicted on areal-time basis.
In thestudy, we learned that monitoring multi-well stimulation process through theone-time distribution of star array geometry is proved to be feasible,efficient and economic.

REFERENCES

[1] Chen Yin, Hong Liu, Furong Wu, Yalin Li.The effect of the calibrated velocityon the microseismic event locationprecision [C] //83th SEG Technical Program Expanded Abstractc2013
[2] S. Grandi Karam, P. Webster, K. Hornman, P.G.E.Lumens, et al., 2013, Microseismic Applications using DAS: Fourth Passive SeismicWorkshop Optimizing Development of Unconventional Reservoirs, Amsterdam.
[3] Olivier Peyret, Julian Drew, Mark Mack, etal., Craig Cipolla, 2012, Subsurface to Surface Microseismic Monitoring forHydraulic Fracturing: SPE.
[4] Jubran Akram and Atila da Silva Paes,2016, An Overview of Microseismic Acquisition Project Management: CSEG RECORDER,28-32.
[5]  Xing Tan, Li Ge, Jian Tang, et al.Application of Micro-seismic Monitoring Technology in Real - timeEvaluation ofFracturing Effect of WeiYuan Shale. 2017,SEG Microseismic Technology & Application,2017
[6] Peter M. Duncan and Leo Eisner, Reservoircharacterization using surface microseismic monitoring. 2010, Geophysics,75(5): 75A139-75A146.
[7]  WangWei-bo. Characteristics of source localization by seismic emission tomography forsurface based on microseismic monitoring. Journal of China University ofPetroleum,2012.

[8]  Chambers K, Kendall J M, Brandsberg-Dahl S,et al. Testing the ability of surface arrays to monitor microseismic activity.Geophysical Prospecting, 2010, 85(5): 821-830.

[9]  PengWeijun and Yang Jinxiu, The influence on the accuracy of Hydraulic fracturingsurface micro seismic monitoring, 2016, Annuaal meeting of Chinese geoscience union(CGU).

Acknowledgments

We thank the conferenceorganizers give the opportunity to show the results of our research, we alsowant to appreciate Essca Group(www.essca.com) for the software support.

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